Traumatic Brain Injury
A type of Acquired Brain Injury, a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) occurs when an outside force impacts the head hard enough to cause the brain to move within the skull or causes the skull to break and directly harm the brain.
A direct blow to the head can be great enough to injure the brain inside the skull. This can occur from motor vehicle crashes, firearms, falls, sports injuries and physical violence such as being struck by an object.
A rapid acceleration and deceleration of the head can force the brain to move back and forth across the inside of the skull. The stress from the rapid movements pulls apart nerve fibers and causes damage to brain tissue. This type of injury (diffuse axonal injury or DAI) often occurs as a result of motor vehicle crashes and physical violence, such as Shaken Baby Syndrome.
TBI may produce a diminished or altered state of consciousness, which results in impairment of cognitive abilities or physical functioning. It can also result in the disturbance of behavioral or emotional functioning. These impairments may be either temporary or permanent and cause partial or total functional disability or psycho-social maladjustment.